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In Wheezy's grep version [1], you can omit the "." in

$ grep -r foobar .

and just write

$ grep -r foobar

[1] actually since 2.11

Posted Do 22 Nov 2012 16:25:49 CET Tags: unix

Ever wondered how much memory a program needed? Install the "time" package:

$ /usr/bin/time ls
[...]
0.00user 0.00system 0:00.00elapsed 0%CPU (0avgtext+0avgdata 4000maxresident)k
0inputs+0outputs (0major+311minor)pagefaults 0swaps

Unfortunately the "time" bash built-in makes it necessary to use the full path.

Thanks to youam for the tip.

Update: aba notes that calling \time works as well. Thanks!

Posted Di 20 Mär 2012 15:32:23 CET Tags: unix

Mutt's configuration is sometime more a toolbox than something offering ready solutions, and "how to I use multiple accounts?" is one of the most FAQs. Here's a condensed version of my setup.

In the most simple solution, just 'c'hange folders to the IMAP server:

c imaps://imap.example.com <enter>
c imaps://imap.otherdomain.tld <enter>

That's cumbersome to type, so let's automate it:

# .mutt/muttrc
macro index <f2> '<change-folder>imaps://imap.example.com<enter>'
macro index <f3> '<change-folder>imaps://imap.otherdomain.tld<enter>'

That would be the basic setup.

The two accounts have settings associated with them, we put them in two files:

# .mutt/account.example
set from=me@example.com
set hostname="example.com"
set folder="imaps://imap.example.com/"
set postponed="=Drafts"
set spoolfile="imaps://imap.example.com/INBOX"
set signature="~/.mutt/signature.example"
set smtp_url="smtp://me@mail.example.com" smtp_pass="$my_pw_example"

# .mutt/account.otherdomain
set from=myself@otherdomain.tld
set hostname="otherdomain.tld"
set folder="imaps://imap.otherdomain.tld/"
set postponed="=Drafts"
set spoolfile="imaps://imap.otherdomain.tld/INBOX"
set signature="~/.mutt/signature.otherdomain"
set smtp_url="smtp://myself@mail.otherdomain.tld" smtp_pass="$my_pw_otherdomain"

Now all that's left to do is two folder-hooks to load the files:

# .mutt/muttrc
folder-hook 'example.com' 'source ~/.mutt/account.example'
folder-hook 'otherdomain.tld' 'source ~/.mutt/account.otherdomain'
# switch to default account on startup
source ~/.mutt/account.example

A slight variation of the macros also uses the account files:

macro index <f2> '<sync-mailbox><enter-command>source ~/.mutt/account.example<enter><change-folder>!<enter>'
macro index <f3> '<sync-mailbox><enter-command>source ~/.mutt/account.otherdomain<enter><change-folder>!<enter>'

To save entering the password all the time, we use account-hooks:

account-hook example.org 'set imap_user=me imap_pass=pw1'
account-hook otherdomain.tld 'set imap_user=myself imap_pass=pw2'

Putting passwords in configs isn't something I like, so I pull them from the Gnome keyring:

set my_pw_example=`gnome-keyring-query get mutt_example`
set my_pw_otherdomain=`gnome-keyring-query get mutt_otherdomain`
account-hook example.org 'set imap_user=me imap_pass=$my_pw_example'
account-hook otherdomain.tld 'set imap_user=myself imap_pass=$my_pw_otherdomain'

(I found gnome-keyring-query in the Gentoo Wiki.)

Martti Rahkila has more verbose article with similar ideas.

Update 2013-01-02: smtp_url and smtp_pass added

Posted Sa 18 Dez 2010 20:43:57 CET Tags: unix

I need to look this up every time I need a backport (mostly PostgreSQL) at a customer site with limited networking:

$ lftp -c 'mget http://backports.debian.org/debian-backports/pool/main/p/postgresql-8.4/*_8.4.5-1~bpo50+1_amd64.deb'

Hopefully I can remember this in the future.

Posted Fr 12 Nov 2010 11:25:04 CET Tags: unix

/etc/fstab files tend to be an unreadable mess of unaligned fields.

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
/dev/mapper/benz-root /               ext3    errors=remount-ro 0       1
/dev/sda1       /boot           ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/mapper/benz-home /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/mapper/benz-swap_1 none            swap    sw              0       0
newton:/home        /nfs        nfs defaults,soft,intr,users    0 0
/dev/scd0       /media/cdrom0   udf,iso9660 user,noauto     0       0

Let's remove some whitespace in the third line:

#<filesystem> <mountpoint>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>

And then pipe everything from line 3 to the end through column -t:

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
#<filesystem>            <mountpoint>   <type>       <options>                 <dump>  <pass>
proc                     /proc          proc         defaults                  0       0
/dev/mapper/benz-root    /              ext3         errors=remount-ro         0       1
/dev/sda1                /boot          ext3         defaults                  0       2
/dev/mapper/benz-home    /home          ext3         defaults                  0       2
/dev/mapper/benz-swap_1  none           swap         sw                        0       0
newton:/home             /nfs           nfs          defaults,soft,intr,users  0       0
/dev/scd0                /media/cdrom0  udf,iso9660  user,noauto               0       0

Thanks to SP8472 for bringing this to my attention.

Posted Do 04 Nov 2010 11:30:30 CET Tags: unix

Just discovered (thanks to XTaran): df -T -- show file system type.

$ df -Th
Filesystem    Type    Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/benz-root
              ext3    6.6G  4.9G  1.4G  79% /
tmpfs        tmpfs    1.6G     0  1.6G   0% /lib/init/rw
udev         tmpfs    1.6G  228K  1.6G   1% /dev
tmpfs        tmpfs    1.6G     0  1.6G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1     ext3    236M   21M  203M  10% /boot
/dev/mapper/benz-home
              ext3    135G   82G   53G  61% /home
newton:/home   nfs    459G  145G  291G  34% /nfs
Posted Mi 03 Nov 2010 13:13:17 CET Tags: unix

paste is one of those tools nobody uses [1]. It puts two file side by side, line by line.

One application for this came up today where some tool was called for several files at once and would spit out one line by file, but unfortunately not including the filename.

$ paste <(ls *.rpm) <(ls *.rpm | xargs -r rpm -q --queryformat '%{name} \n' -p)

[1] See "J" in The ABCs of Unix

Posted Di 19 Okt 2010 17:25:54 CEST Tags: unix
$ for i in `seq 1 40` ; do ./something $i ; done
$ for i in $(seq 1 40) ; do ./something $i ; done

seq is nice for that, but the syntax feels a bit hard to type. If you don't need sh compatibility (read: in bash/zsh), try:

$ for i in {1..40} ; do ./something $i ; done

PS: no spaces allowed

PS 2: another useful feature is prefixes/suffixes as in "touch {1..40}.txt"

Posted Mo 11 Okt 2010 11:26:43 CEST Tags: unix

I've always been annoyed about how hard it is to convert seconds-since-epoch to strings. I've always been using "date -d '1970-01-01 + 1234 sec'", but as it turned out, that's wrong because it uses the wrong timezone. Luckily, there's a slick replacement:

$ date -d '@1234'
Do 1. Jan 01:20:34 CET 1970

The right version of the "long" version is:

$ date -d '1970-01-01 UTC + 1234 sec'
Do 1. Jan 01:20:34 CET 1970
Posted Di 13 Jul 2010 15:04:25 CEST Tags: unix

Since coreutils 8.1 (in Squeeze, not Lenny), there is a command that simply prints out how many processors (cores, processing units) are available:

$ nproc
2

The use case is obvious:

$ make -j $(nproc)

On a side note, this is gnulib's nproc module wrapped into a C program. If you didn't know gnulib before (it had slipped my attention until recently), it is a library of portability functions and other useful things. Adding it to a project is simply done by calling gnulib-tool and tweaking a few lines in the automake/whatever build scripts.

PS: do not use nproc unconditionally in debian/rules. Parse DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS for "parallel" instead.

Posted Mi 23 Jun 2010 09:58:49 CEST Tags: unix